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Cuban Billboard Equates US Torture With Nazis

Cuban Billboard Equates US Torture With Nazis, as seen. Also posted is a recent speech given by Commander in Chief Fidel Castro Ruz, President of
the Republic of Cuba.
Speech given by Commander in Chief Fidel Castro Ruz, President of
the Republic of Cuba, at the closing session of the Young Communists
League 8th Congress,held in the Havana Convention Center, Havana, 5
December 2004

Dear delegates, guests and attendees to the Young Communists League
8th Congress:

Some of the concepts I will touch upon today have already been
discussed and published; some have been developed in the heat of the
struggle; others refer to goals we have attained; others are just

Today, when you have invited me to address you, I shall try to
explain how and why this day is very special for all of us.

Unfortunately, the responsibility I have shouldered throughout this
intense and difficult revolutionary process and, in particular, my
relation with the Battle of Ideas, oblige me to make reference to my
own speeches, ideas and concepts, something which in no way pleases
me, so I beg your indulgence in advance.

I have never believed that ideas orbit around public figures;
rather, it is the latter that ought to orbit around ideas.

The fact that I dared to make so many predictions that, today,
people are recognizing as irrefutable truths stems exclusively from
the experience I have accumulated. I could have died young, as did
many other Cuban revolutionaries throughout our history. Yesterday's
and today's enemies did everything humanly possible to achieve this
aim, but I had the privilege of having struggled for many years,
since early 1953, when we had the idea of seizing the Santiago de
Cuba Regiment's weapons to initiate the struggle. The credit for
this privilege is not mine; the true credit belongs to those who
stood by their beliefs and were willing to sacrifice even their
lives for the aims we espoused.
Only three days ago, when some congratulated me, reminding me of the
48th anniversary of the Granma landing, my first reaction was one of
surprise. How much time has gone by and how much has occurred!

Engrossed in our present duties, some of us who took part in that
action have hardly a second to look back on the beginning of that
long march on which we were embarking in the days of Moncada and
Granma. I would describe it all as a long learning process; it is
amazing how ignorant we were when we set out on that unknown road.

Allow me to give you a concise summary, often using quotes, of the
essentials of what I expressed on three different occasions prior to
the Battle of Ideas, whose spirit today reigns over the 8th Congress
of our prestigious Young Communists League.

On October 8, 1997, in the Central Report to the Party's 5th
Congress, I said:

"It is obvious that we need to work more closely and intensely with
our youth organizations, as these times and this Party need a
continuous influx of young cadres and members.

"Now more than ever, more than at any other juncture --this being
the most difficult, the toughest of times-- I believe we must devote
special efforts to our young people and their education, because
those who come after this generation must be better.

"We want them to be fully conscious of their role, of what they can
do for their country, of what they can do for the Revolution, of
what they can do for their future".

On October 10, 1997, in my remarks about youths in the closing
session of the Party's 5th Congress, I pointed out:

"We have the Party, we have our wonderful young people --yes,
that's what I said, wonderful young people-- whom we will of course
ask to do more and more political work, political work which is not
the same as parroting a slogan. For a long time, the Party was also,
at times, simplistic and dogmatic, working with slogans instead of

"We must work directly with the people, on a one by one basis; this
means more than the work done through the press and television,
through conferences or political meetings. The work of convincing
and persuading human beings, one by one, is historic. Religions were
created this way and have lasted thousands of years.

"We revolutionaries must do the same. Our cadres and young people
must work like this and never consider anyone a lost cause.

"Based on the profoundest conviction that we are right and that we
are defending what is fairest, most beautiful, most human, we must
discuss things for as long as we need to, explain things as many
times as necessary, we must teach and educate. Political work cannot
be done in the abstract. We must delve more deeply into knowledge,
into ideas, into what happens here and in the world. We must be
frank, courageous, and truthful.

"There are 780, 000 Party members, and then there are all of the
revolutionaries who are not Party members. It is everyone's job to
make what is in many cases an exception the rule and our best
experiences the norm. How could we not achieve this? What are we?
What is our worth, if we cannot achieve it? Given everything we know
today, and all of the possibilities open to us, we must do it. That
would be the true victory of ideas".

On December 10, 1998, at the YCL's 7th Congress, I said:

"We must meet, in the heat of battle, with the leading cadres to
discuss, analyze, expand on and draft plans and strategies, to take
up issues and elaborate ideas, as when an army's general staff meets.

"We must use solid arguments to talk to members and non-members, to
speak to those who may be confused or even to discuss and debate
with those holding positions contrary to those of the Revolution or
who are influenced by imperialist ideology in this great battle of
ideas we have been waging for years now, precisely in order to carry
out the heroic deed of resisting against the most politically,
militarily, economically, technologically and culturally powerful
empire that has ever existed. Young cadres must be well prepared for
this task.

"In this ideological struggle, ideas are our fundamental weapons;
our most important ammunition are also ideas. We have to arm our
cadres with ideas so that they, in turn, can pass these on to the
young and to all of the people.
"This army knows the plan and the strategy; let the enemy learn what
these are as it goes along. I am again comparing this struggle to a
great battle waged by a vanguard army, an elite troop of the
Revolution. I put the Revolution and the Party first; they are,
after all, one and the same thing.

"In a short meeting with the new National Committee, I was able to
talk to you more freely as fewer comrades were present, and we could
speak even more freely and take up more discussion and opinions at a
meeting with the National Bureau.

"This 7th Congress", I said then, "has been an excellent congress,
one where discussions covered the broadest range of topics, where
nothing led us to shy away from any issue; on the contrary, we were
constantly urged to take up all of the issues, no matter how thorny
or complex, in order to make the most of this meeting, and I feel we
have accomplished this.

"This has been possible, we must say this categorically, thanks to
the extraordinary work that has been done over the course of a year,
under the leadership of the YCL's National Bureau. In fact at this
point, where thanks are usually given, we should sincerely and
wholeheartedly acknowledge the comrades in the Bureau and the
numerous cadres who, under Otto's leadership, have been working from
the time the congress was called up to this very minute.

"All of us have learned something; not only you, we have learned

"The Congress," I added, "shows that the YCL has become
increasingly strong and that it is better organized, has more
experience, greater prestige and influence than ever in key, truly
strategic sectors of today's society and --even more so-- in
tomorrow's society, tomorrow's Cuba. It is organized in the way
these times, this historic moment, require!

"One of the extraordinary things about our Revolution is that, ever
since it came into being --and it could be said that our
Revolution's ideas were begotten on that university hill-- the
Revolution and our young people have been as closely bound as
identical, one could even say Siamese, twins. I invite you to try
and find in any other country in the world a bond as strong as it
has existed, exists and shall always exist in this profoundly
revolutionary process. Our Revolution is reborn each day, because
the ideas we stand for, the justice that we defend, the cause we
fight for, is today the cause, and there can be no cause other than
that of the billions of people who live on this planet.

"I say ideas because the struggle we are speaking about will not, in
essence, be a war, but rather a battle of ideas. The world's
problems shall not be solved through the use of nuclear weapons --
this is impossible-- nor through wars. What's more, they shall not
be solved through isolated revolutions that, within the order
installed by neo-liberal globalization, can be crushed within a
matter of days, weeks at the most.

"We cannot, however, neglect defense for even a minute, because
given the unavoidable crises, a change of government, a fascist-like
or far-right party in power is all it will take to return the empire
to its adventuristic ways of old. We cannot overlook the risk of a
military invasion. Today, the real battle is the battle of ideas.

"The Revolution was able to hold out because it sowed ideas.

"The world is rapidly being globalized; an unsustainable and
intolerable world economic order is rapidly being established. Ideas
are the raw material from which consciousness is forged; they are
the raw material of ideology par excellence. I prefer to call them
the raw material of consciousness to emphasize that it is not a
question of strict and rigid ideology, but rather of an advanced
consciousness, that is to say, a conviction that hundreds of
millions and billions of people on this planet will inevitably
arrive at, and that it will constitute, without a doubt, the best
instrument to secure the victory of those ideas throughout the

"Not weapons but ideas will decide this universal battle, and not
because of some intrinsic value, but because of how closely they
relate to the objective reality of today's world. These ideas stem
from the conviction that, mathematically speaking, the world has no
other way out that imperialism is unsustainable, that the system
that has been imposed on the world leads to disaster, to an
insurmountable crisis, and, I dare say, sooner rather than later.

"It is based on these premises and these convictions that I evaluate
what we have analyzed and what we are doing these days. It is not
the only way of doing it, far from it, but it is valuable because it
is essential.

"This battle you are waging cannot be lost. Without the tasks you
must complete, without the work you will carry out --and you will
be totally successful, I have no doubt of that-- we could not even
speak of our dreams, not only dreams for our compatriots, but also
for all of the people in this world.

"Never before, or anywhere else, has a people done what the people
of Cuba are doing today. And what it is doing today with ideas,
sowing ideas, cultivating and developing ideas; this cannot lead to
anything but the victory of ideas, to the firm belief that this
Revolution shall not disappear nor crumble, because it is firmly
planted in deeply rooted and ideas that are constantly evolving.

"Just ideas are invincible. Of them, Martí said: `Trenches made of
ideas are stronger than those made of stones' and `a just cause --
even one buried in the depths of a cave-- is mightier than an

"Ideas are not simply an instrument to build consciousness and lead
people to fight. Today, they have become the main weapon in the
struggle, not a source of inspiration, not a guide, not a directive,
but the main weapon of the struggle.

"We are not dogmatic nor can we be dogmatic, we are to avoid any
sort of dogmas, as we believe in truly dialectical and flexible
minds, which does not mean to admit even the slightest opportunism
or pragmatism.

"We are flexible and dialectical because of our most rigid adherence
to the principles and objectives of our revolutionary process and
the new goals which we didn't ask anybody for, which we didn't hope
or plan for, but which life and the history of these past decades
have imposed on our country and our revolutionaries. And, this being
the case, we have no other option but to fight with all our
strength, thinking not only of ourselves but also of the well-being
that the fruits of our struggle might bear for so many people around
the world".

As fate would have it, the colossal Battle of Ideas that our people
has been waging for exactly five years today began just one year
after those words were spoken.

On July 5, 2000, on bestowing the "Carlos Manuel de Céspedes Order"
on Miguel González, I looked back on how I had met him a year
before, on December 2 to be precise, and how the battle for Elián's
return had begun. That day, I said:
"I asked him a number of questions and, although he was obviously
hurting and sad, he answered them with persuasive arguments and
irrefutable proof of his affectionate, faultless and steadfast
relationship with his son.
"At every moment, I could see in his face the features of a noble,
sincere and serious man.
"I told him that I was convinced that the boy would never be
returned through legal procedures. This was a case in which the U.S.
courts had absolutely no jurisdiction, and it was the duty of the
U.S. immigration authorities to proceed with the immediate
repatriation of his son. But, I was well aware of the arrogant,
arbitrary, biased and conspiratorial behavior of the U.S.
authorities with regard to any misdeeds and crimes committed against
our people. The return of this boy could only be accomplished
through an intense national and international political battle of
public opinion".
The following day --as I said at that ceremony-- I spoke with other
Party leaders and, without wasting a minute, I got in touch with
leaders of the Young Communists League and the University Student
Federation. Young people and students would be in the vanguard of
this struggle, with the full support of all revolutionary forces.
Forty-eight hours later, on a Sunday evening like today exactly five
years ago, one thousand young people from the Youth Technical
Brigades who were just concluding a national conference took part in
the first protest march held outside the US Interests Section.
Thus began the epic struggle for Elián's freedom. The battle for a
child quickly became a battle for justice and the happiness of all
our children and all of our people.
Guided by the profoundest conviction, already expressed in my
closing remarks to the 7th Youth Congress I mentioned above, that
ideas are the most important weapon in humanity's fight for its own
salvation, the battle we began was not only one of thoughts,
discussion, arguments and counter-arguments, but also of concrete
facts and actions as well.
As part of the Battle of Ideas' work group, the Young Communists
League has coordinated and spurred on nearly 200 revolutionary
programs that have been created as a result of this struggle.
In these past few years, I have devoted over seven thousand hours of
fruitful and unforgettable labor to the tasks of exchanging ideas,
analyzing and giving guidance to this group, the majority of whose
members are YCL leaders and workers', students' and women's
representatives led by our Party.
We have worked all this time to develop a critical rather than self-
indulgent vision of our undertaking and our historical objectives.
We have put into practice revolutionary concepts, which sweep away
formalism and conformism and accelerate the transformation processes
needed for our country's future.
Some have been taken from the very notes taken by YCL cadres and by
others who participate in our meetings. They include:
• No youth should be abandoned and no person should be left
alone to face his fate. The YCL must work with every youth. Behind
every category and every percentage is a man, a woman, a child or
senior citizen.
• There is a solution to every problem; it is a question of
finding alternatives.
• Any coordination work must be based on continuous analysis
and up-to-date information so that decisions take precise account of
the details; every action must be thought through, one must act
quickly and never lose a minute.
• New coordination methods and mechanisms must be found so
that all bodies and organizations participate with the understanding
that the nation's interests are over and above bureaucratic
contradictions, cravings for power and institutional jealousy.
• Secure high levels of involvement and commitment from those
cadres and workers who participate in each and every one of the
• To exercise criticism and reflection wherever needed.
• Every idea always leads to a new idea and this new idea
leads to more and more ideas. A new idea, no matter how good it
seems, must be previously tested and undergo thorough experiments
under real conditions.
• Discretion and compartmentalization are basic principles in
program coordination and orientation. Programs shall be made public
only after they have become realities; this way, we shall avoid
promises that cannot be kept or that are kept and then ignored,
forgotten or cast aside.
• Participating companies should neither make profits nor bear
losses. Works must be executed quickly, within the budget, with
quality and an optimal use of resources.
• Maintenance for equipment and facilities made available to
these programs shall be provided. Everything must always be as good
as new.
To this small sample of what remained in the cadres' minds, we could
add hundreds of examples of what the cadres came up with when faced
with the need to act swiftly and guarantee success. We had to make
up for all the time lost in routine, simplistic thinking and other
habits that hinder progress and frustrate the objectives that only a
truly socialist system can achieve.
One day, literally said:
"Notwithstanding the rights and guarantees offered to all citizens
of any race and background, the Revolution has not been as
successful in its struggle to eradicate differences in the social
and economic status of Cuba's black population, even though this
sector plays an important role in many highly significant areas,
including education and health".
These were the very words I said with no hesitation whatsoever, on
February 7 last year, at the closing session of the International
Pedagogy Congress 2003, which took place in the heat of the Battle
of Ideas. This idea about the sad legacy of slavery, class society,
capitalism and imperialism was something I had been carrying inside
me and wanted to declare publicly.
Nowhere has there ever existed equality of opportunities. The
possibility of studying, obtaining higher qualifications or a
university degree was the exclusive privilege of the more
knowledgeable and economically powerful sectors. It was only the
exception among the poor who was able to beat the system.
The huge strides made by socialism had created the foundations, but
we still had to take the great leap forward. Thanks to the Battle of
Ideas, we can today say that the lives of children, teenagers, young
people and the Cuban family is not the same as it was five years
Today, a primary school teacher is responsible for only 20 pupils,
something which allows him or her to provide better quality
teaching, differentiated attention to each of his or her pupils and
their families, thus, a more comprehensive education.
They have television sets, VCRs and computer labs at their disposal.
These are incredibly efficient instruments that, used as teaching
tools, greatly expand our children's knowledge. Not one child in
Cuba is without access to these modern tools. Schools with no
electricity are equipped today with solar panels that power
computers, televisions and VCRs.
Computer science has begun to be taught at pre-school level. 12, 958
teachers of basic computer science trained in intensive courses and
assigned to teach in our classrooms and all primary school teachers
were given specially designed courses in the subject.
Children with special educational needs have also been taught using
these new and modern educational tools. The first School for
Autistic Children, a group that has been overlooked in nearly every
country in the world, was inaugurated two years ago.
Today, children begin to study English through audio-visual courses
from the third grade on. They learn to play chess at school and
receive cultural and artistic instruction from the first 3, 271 art
instructors who graduated this past October 20. A similar or greater
number of instructors shall graduate every year and work not only in
the educational sector but also in cultural and social institutions
in the community.
We have improved meals in schools that have a school lunch program;
these are now the immense majority of those that need this program.
Systematic attention is accorded to all children found to have
nutritional situations when the first program designed to weigh and
measure all children aged 15 and under was conducted in 2001.
Recently, a comprehensive study of the entire infant population was
completed Aspects such as nutritional condition, schooling, family
and living environment, which were measured in the study, are now
being properly addressed.
All of these transformations have allowed us to implement an
authentic full-day study program and have made it possible for our
children in primary school to learn 2.2 times more Mathematics and
1.5 times more Spanish than they did four years ago. These figures
should grow as our educational system continues to develop as
planned. Opportunities for learning and for physical and
intellectual development are equal for all children, regardless of
where they live, skin color or social background.
The extraordinary changes that are taking place in primary school
education have been accomplished with few resources cleverly used,
following concepts of equality and justice and, above all, with a
view to offering the same opportunities to all children throughout
the country.
We shall continue to work just as intensely toward improving and
developing the other levels of education.
Radical transformations have also been made to junior high schools
by implementing a different educational model for children and
adolescents in seventh, eighth and ninth grades —which are facing a
grave crisis in other countries. This model breaks with previous
educational concepts.

At this school level there is now a general all-round teacher who
is responsible for 15 students and who teaches all subjects except
English and Physical Education. He or she is a tutor, an educator, a
mentor for each student; this gets rid of the excessive number of
teachers for the various subjects under which system it was
impossible to integrate the different branches of knowledge and the
educational influences needed at this decisive stage of life.

Thanks to this step, the school's relationship with the family has
improved qualitatively which means they can cooperate more
extensively and changes have even operated in the way many parents
behave towards and treat their children.

Mathematics, Spanish, History, English and Physics classes are
taught using videos whose contents have been designed by the most
prestigious educational specialists in the country. This gives
considerable reinforcement to the efforts made by the teachers and
increases the quality and depth of the classes taught.

The frequency of Mathematics, Computing, Spanish and History classes
has been raised, which means the students receive more information
and improve their knowledge of these subjects.

The new art instructors are also working in our junior high schools,
promoting culture and bringing the best of Cuba and the world's
traditions to our adolescents.

There is a program to provide free school snacks or lunch to junior
high school students. This allows them to receive the nourishment
needed to sit through the double session of classes and means the
students of this level are safer because they don't have to leave
the school grounds until the end of the school day.

On December 2, 2004, 307,339 students and 38,246 workers in 591
urban junior high schools were receiving free school snacks. The
students of 83 junior high schools still have to join the program;
they will be receiving the benefits from this program in the first
three months of next year.

The Behavior School also has social workers working with the
students. These are responsible for organizing the way society can
act to modify the causes and conditions from which social
disadvantage and behavioral problems arise.

These far reaching transformations have also targeted our young
people, from the age of 16 on.

We founded the social worker schools from which more than 21,485
youths have already graduated. These constitute a veritable
detachment of social support and solidarity that is now working with
almost all of Cuba's People's Councils. Every year another 7,000
youths are trained using new educational concepts, and not only in
the schools designed for that purpose but also in their own
municipalities, in what we call Home-Schools, using television,
videos, and computers under the guidance of experienced teachers and
in direct contact with the social conditions in their own
communities. When they graduate, all have direct access to many
university degree programs related to their multifaceted activity.

We set up the secondary school upgrading courses for young people
aged 17 to 30 who, once they had completed ninth grade, which is now
the general level for these ages, ceased to either study or work.

This has allowed more than 150,000 youths to study in these
secondary school upgrading programs and receive an income
appropriate to their age and needs.

The results obtained have meant that 48,406 graduates from these
courses have already enrolled in various university programs --
including that of medical science-- and achieved very positive

Throughout the Battle of Ideas we have made an old dream come true:
the universalization of higher education, thus making universities
accessible to all the young people who graduate from the
Revolution's programs and to workers in general.

This program has given unheard of opportunities to young people and
adults who were not previously able to attend higher education
institutes but who now can join in the revolutionary aim of having
all citizens, regardless of the work they do, obtain a comprehensive

The result of these programs is that the country today has the
highest number of students registered in higher education than at
any other time in its history: 380,000 students, of whom 233, 011
are being educated in the 938 university chapters that already exist
in the country's 169 municipalities.

The 65,427 teachers and tutors working in this universalization
program, who have given a committed, determined response to this
call of the Revolution, are part of more than 700,000 professionals
educated by the Revolution who work in Cuba, despite the constant
brain drain which victimizes Third World countries.

Our aspiration of having higher education centers for excellence
resulted in the creation of the University of Information Sciences,
the first institution of this kind to be created during the Battle
of Ideas.

Just two years and three months after it was opened, more than 6,000
youths from every municipality in the country study in this already
prestigious university where novel concepts and revolutionary
working methods are used; these have obtained significant
achievements in teaching and productive activity in a very short
space of time.

The spirit and concepts applied in the University of Information
Sciences are those we must also use in those polytechnics where this
subject is taught. They are educating almost 40,000 mid-level
information science technicians throughout the country, thus
securing Cuba's future development --something that is only possible
thanks to the vast human capital created by the Revolution over more
than four decades.

This recently approved project for Information Science Polytechnics
is only the latest of the Battle of Ideas' programs for the 2000-
2004 period. We shall allocate the necessary material resources and
equipment to it. The ministry of Education, the ministry of
Information Sciences and Communication and the Young Communist
League have already received the relevant instructions.

The Battle of Ideas has done much for the Cuban family, for the
safety and the mental and physical development of their children,
without exceptions.

With regards to such an important field as healthcare, these
families benefit from the large amounts of money invested in our 444
polyclinics, 107 of which have been completely remodeled and 34 of
which are in the process of being remodeled. On top of this,
reconstruction and modernization work is going on in 27 hospitals,
as part of a program that will affect all of them equally and 217
physiotherapy wards are being opened in the polyclinics, all of
which will offer this service by the end of next year. 24 new
facilities offering hemodialysis have been opened, as have 88
offering optician services and 118 intensive therapy centers in
those municipalities which, because they have no surgical hospitals,
did not have this extremely valuable medical resource which has
already saved thousands of lives to date.

The program of technical refurbishment now in full swing will bring
benefits to all of the primary and secondary services we have and
will have the added benefit of bringing the most important and
highest quality medical services closer to the population's homes
and places of residence.

In the same token, 1905 television rooms have been opened in
isolated rural settlements having no electricity, thus providing
access to information, recreation and to educational television
programs to more than half a million Cubans who live in those areas
and who were the only ones who still did not have these services.

Extending the Youth Clubs (Joven Club) to 300 facilities has allowed
436,753 Cubans to learn about computing, that is, since the
beginning of April 2001, when the new Youth Clubs were opened thus
raising the number of computers allocated to 3,000. This excellent
program is being expanded with another 100 additional clubs already
completed, the aim being to double the existing 300 facilities.

The Book Fairs have turned into a huge festivity for the Cuban
family. In 2002, they spread from their traditional home in Havana
to 19 other Cuban cities and this year they will extend to 34. Nine
and a half million people visited the last three Fairs, with more
than 15 million books on sale.

The Family Library made the best of Cuban and world literature
available to our people at reasonable prices. 100,000 copies of 25
titles were produced, and a second collection is ready to go to

Two new, modern, high capacity printers have been bought, one of
which is working to full capacity and the other is being installed.
Resources have been allocated to repair and modernize all the
equipment in the National Print Works.

The University for All, broadcast on television, which went on air
on October 2, 2000 has become the biggest university in the country,
the one offering the widest variety of subjects. 43 courses with
1,721 content hours have been taught using this resource. Six
courses are being broadcast now. 775 professors, of whom 265 are
PhDs and 134 have Master's degrees, have taught courses.

The programs developed to turn prisons into schools have had a
marked impact on the inmates' families by helping to strengthen the
bonds between the young offenders and their relatives.

Studies made of people with disabilities have made it possible to
resolve some of the crises in the care offered to them and their
families. They have allowed us to warn the families about hereditary
diseases and have made it possible for 6,052 mothers to devote
themselves full-time to looking after their children with serious
disabilities since they receive a salary for doing so.

A total of 366,864 people with physical and motor, sensory, organic
and other disabilities, including mental disabilities were studied.
More than 30, 000 science professionals and management and support
staff took part in the nation-wide study.

On August 5, 2003 the New National Center for Genetic Medicine was

As a result of this huge effort to attain the highest possible level
of justice for our people and to provide full equality of
opportunities for all, more than 380,000 jobs have been created, the
outcome of the Revolution's Programs, most of which basically
benefit the youths.

According to information received from the ministry of Labor, by the
end of this year unemployment had fallen to less than 2%, something
that is absolutely impossible in any industrialized capitalist

In only three years, more than 44,979 new primary and junior high
school teachers have been trained. This is equal to eleven years
output from the teacher training institutes' regular day courses
between 1988 and 2000.

As I already said, we have 21,485 social workers. In 2000, when the
Battle of Ideas began, Social Security had only 795 social workers
in all of Cuba.

As of November 20, 5,810 building, rebuilding or expansion public
works had been completed; 1,732 of these were for education, 1, 537
for health, 32 for major cultural institutions, including major
rebuilding and expansion work on the Higher Institute of Art, and
2,508 for other of the Revolution's programs. 913 schools have
sustained capital repairs while 32 new schools have been built. Our
country has today 5,270 new classrooms.

Over 25 million cassettes have been produced in about a year and a
half and another new cassette factory is under construction.

The agreements we have just signed with China mean we will be able
to acquire 100,000 computers annually; these will be used mainly for
the education of children, young people and adults and for
retraining our country's growing number of university graduate
technicians and professionals.

The day will also come when computers will be widely used to
dialogue with the world. When one takes into account this country's
political education, the growing efforts to give Cubans a good
command of English and other languages, there is no other people
which has more things to give information about nor more training to
be able to do so in a better way.

The first million television sets we bought from the People's
Republic of China has meant that 827,322 families in Cuba have a top
quality 21-inch color television which uses 20 watts less
electricity than a LG color television and 120 watts less than a
Soviet black and white television. This has had a profound and
widespread impact on our people's level of culture and information
and on its recreational opportunities. The rest of the television
sets were given to education, health and other of the country's
social programs; 80,000 of them were used for international
cooperation, and we will be getting another 300,000 21-inch
television sets from China. Several thousand 29-inch televisions,
which are now being used in education, are not from China.

Our educational system has 109,117 television sets and 40,858 VCRs
in the classrooms; these have become excellent teaching aids.

Two new educational channels have been established, which combined
with Cubavision and Tele Rebelde broadcast 394 hours of educational
programming weekly. This is 62.7% of the total hours broadcast by
Cuban television. 247 of these hours are devoted to courses on the

If at the last YCL Congress we expressed our concern about the low
output of books and other publications for our children and youths,
we can today announce that 457, 840,862 copies of books, newsprint
editions, pamphlets and other printed material have been produced
for our various programs and projects.

These include:
41, 025, 778 books, newsprint editions, and pamphlets for
educational programs.

15, 979, 198 books for the Book Fairs.

35,371,157 newsprint transcripts of Round Tables and Open Forums.

15,905,758 newsprint study materials for University for All.

In 1999, there were only eight visual art schools in the country.
Today this type of education has spread to all the provinces, with
visual art schools in 17 cities.

The registration in the new National Ballet School that can take 300
students has been extended to students from all provinces.

Today, 4,021 students from all of the capital's municipalities
attend vocational workshops given in the National Ballet School
twice a week. Other dance schools offer similar courses.

6,789 public and school libraries have received encyclopedias,
dictionaries, atlases and other books with which they have renovated
their bibliographic stock.

2,365,234 children and youths have been given a book as a prize in
their graduation ceremonies.

About 10,900,000 Cubans have taken part in the 161 Open Forums that
have taken place.

11, 800,000 people have joined in the 18 marches we have had.

1,030 Round Tables have been aired to date. These have become a kind
of political university offering up-to-the-minute relevant
information and profound and truthful analyses of the empire's crude
lies and perfidious aggression against our people, while also
discussing important aspects of international politics, economics,
culture, sciences, sports and other issues of interest.

Since the Battle of Ideas is --as I once said-- "the battle of
humanism against dehumanization, the battle of brotherhood and
sisterhood against the most blatant form of selfishness […] the
battle of justice against the most brutal form of injustice, the
battle for our people and the battle for other peoples" we at this
time have 23,413 doctors and health technicians working on humane
missions of solidarity in 66 countries. A very large number of them
are working in the poorest neighborhoods in Simón Bolívar's great
homeland, which is at this moment in the midst of revolutionary
changes under the leadership of an amazing new political leader, a
follower of Bolivar and Marti, a beloved friend of Cuba, Hugo Chávez

The impact of the Battle of Ideas, its principles and work methods
have not only transformed our educational system, and the lives of
our people, but have also strengthened and increased the prestige of
the Young Communist League, which, at the moment this Congress is
taking place, has the highest number of YCL members in the last
decade: 557,298, which is 104,692 more than at the 7th Congress.

Today our youth organization has 49,054 local chapters, 8,756 more
than in 1998.

If we criticized the YCL at the last Party Congress for its
weaknesses in grooming members for our vanguard party, we are today
happy to see that the attention they gave to this crucial matter and
the growing strength of the organization itself have resulted in the
YCL supplying the Party with 63 of every 100 members who have come
to their 30th birthday. So, in total, if we count those young
members who are under 30 who were allowed to join under a special
plan, the YCL has strengthened the Party with 133,283 new members.
This is their concrete response to the fair criticisms they received.

Those chiefly responsible for these results have been the young
cadre. This battle has demanded that they increase their capacity
for action and their readiness and has obliged them to make a
qualitative change in their working methods so that they may devote
their attention to the internal functioning and daily work of the
YCL and may also take up the new tasks that stem from the
Revolution's programs.

The organization's experience, perseverance and its achievements
have meant that it has been able to provide the Party with more
cadres. In the last two years, 215 YCL cadres have become
professional Party workers.

What we have achieved to date is the result of our people's and our
wonderful youths' heroic efforts. We still have a lot left to do.
You know where the old and new problems are.

We must ensure that the teachers working in our classrooms today
stay working there, we must add to their reserves, jealously guard
the young human resources we have trained over the last few years,
paying special attention to their professionalism and up-grading. We
must continue to analyze the inescapable changes that our technical
professional and senior high school education must undergo; we must
improve the way higher education is made accessible to all and we
must make sure that all of the country's universities move forward
from this idea towards the academic and revolutionary excellence
that the country demands from its university students and professors.

We must do further more intensive political work with all of our
health workers, so that the quality of the services offered to the
public are in step with the investments in buildings and technology
made in this sector and with the prestige that Cuban medicine has
obtained by sending its doctors and technicians to other parts of
the world in solidarity.

We have to continue with the task of promoting healthy, enlightened
and useful recreational opportunities for our young people, which
make use of all the opportunities and resources we have today thanks
to the Revolution's programs.

We will have to continue to wage our hard-fought battle against
corruption, social indiscipline, and any surge in drug use.

The highest possible integration of all the institutions involved in
public broadcasting must take place. These are the institutions,
which can and must be completely at the service of knowledge,
culture, recreation, and the most dearly held values and interests
of our people.

There is still a lot to repair, build and improve in our social
institutions. We have proof that this is possible.

As I once said, "perhaps the most useful of our modest efforts in
the struggle for a better world will be to demonstrate how much can
be done with so little when all of society's human and material
resources are placed at the service of the people".

The hard currency cost of the Battle of Ideas, including, the
buildings, materials of all kinds, the thousands of pieces of top
quality, standardized medical, dental and optician's equipment, the
computers and videos, including payments made for the credit to buy
televisions for the population and for institutions and other
similar payments is less that 2% of the country's total hard
currency expenditure in the last five years.

To this we must add, as an example of the best use of scarce
resources, that the
cost of the million Chinese television sets is almost completely
offset by the saving in electricity that will be achieved in the 8
years needed to repay the credit obtained.

When we look back on these heroic years of intense labor and not a
few challenges, we cannot help but feel proud of our youth, of its
values, of its caliber, of its mettle.

Men like Juan Miguel, who has discharged his duties as a father and
a patriot in such an exemplary manner, was a member of the YCL.

Our five heroes imprisoned by the empire were members of the YCL,
they who are the victims of vengeance and hate, who are suffering
through cruel and unjust prison terms in American jails without
letting anyone stain their honor, break their integrity and loyalty
to the Revolution and to our people.

They are symbols and serve as inspiration to those who will change
the world. We shall not rest for a second until justice be done and
they are returned to our country. Sooner or later, with support from
the rest of the world, we shall win that battle, too!

The information I have given in these remarks which are my reply to
your invitation may astound many people, some might not even believe
them, others will totally ignore them.

The empire will be furious and announce with incredible cynicism
that Cuba must be liberated and democracy brought to this enslaved
people and what is more, teach it to read and write, as they
announce in their `program for the transition to capitalism'. The
masses, still partially deceived by the hail of lies and invectives
coming from the powerful imperialist media, will believe us more and
more, as they begin to awaken to what is in store for them and to
understand the huge difference between our system and the one
advocated by the empire.

Capitalism has lost any humanist essence; it lives from waste and to
waste; it cannot escape from that congenital, incurable disease.
Suffice it to say that Cuba has 450 doctors in Haiti, the poorest
country in the hemisphere; the industrialized countries cannot send
even 50, for they have finance capital but lack human capital.

Neither aggression nor blockade, terrorist acts or the
disintegration of the socialist block, unipolar dominion over the
world or the extreme right's rise to power in the United States
which we, in 1998, warned was possible and in fact likely, have been
able to break our heroic people's spirit of struggle.

We have known true independence and real freedom. We shall never
resign ourselves to living without them! We are willing to pay the
necessary price of which Martí spoke.

We shall continue to create and to struggle. No one now will ever be
strong enough to push back into the bottle the genie of a people
which has escaped for ever from plunder, humiliation and ignominy.

As Camilo Cienfuegos, that extraordinary fighter who is there with
Mella and Che on the Cuban YCL badge and who was only 27 when he
died, said in his last speech on October 26, 1959: "We shall kneel
down once and we shall bow our heads once, and that will be on the
day when we reach the land that watches over 20,000 Cubans and say
to them, `Brothers and sisters, the Revolution is complete, your
blood was not shed in vain'".

Long ago, the Cuban people said Homeland or Death! And it will carry
on its Battle of Ideas to its logical conclusion.

Long live the people that have faced up honorably to the most
powerful empire ever to exist!

Eternal life to the example the Cuban youths are setting for the
world today!

Long live socialism forever!

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Re: Cuban Billboard Equates US Torture With Nazis

"Long ago, the Cuban people said Homeland or Death!"

Yes, if you try to leave the Homeland you get killed. Wonderful country.

Re: Cuban Billboard Equates US Torture With Nazis

Someone under the alias "i" says, "Yes, if you try to leave the Homeland you get killed."

Simply put, this is not true. I challenge you to provide any evidence of this unsubstantiated claim.

Cuba is not perfect, but they do not execute people for leaving the country. They have, however, executed terrorist hijackers. The fear of the Cuban people is that if they don't deal harshly with U.S. supported terrorism when it occurs, more Cuban lives will be jeopardized. Terrorist hijackers from Cuba are treated like heroes by the United States government, so the only law enforcement deterrent to anti-Cuban terrorism (often paid for by the CIA) occurs in Cuba.

I wrote the following partly on the situation in Cuba, if you care to check it out.

On North Korea, Cuba, and Vietnam

Re: Cuban Billboard Equates US Torture With Nazis

You challenged, I answer:

This took me all of 3 minutes of searching Google.

Re: Cuban Billboard Equates US Torture With Nazis

Your three-minute Google search does not prove your assertion.

Carlos Costa was not fleeing Cuba, he was flying over Cuban territory despite warnings not to do so. Cuba has been the victim germ warfare and other terrorist attacks from the United States and they do have the right to protect their air space.

Re: Cuban Billboard Equates US Torture With Nazis

Steven Argue says that Carlos Costa was flying over Cuban territory. Simply put, this is not true. As indicated in i's most recent ppst, a UN investigation determined that Mr. Costa was in INTERNATIONAL AIRSPACE.

Mr. Argue also claims that Cuba has been the victim of "germ warfare" attacks from the US. This also, as far as I can determine, is NOT true. Steve, let's see your proof for that claim.

Re: Cuban Billboard Equates US Torture With Nazis

In the 1990s the UN carried out a starvation blockade against Iraq murdering 1.5 million Iraqis in addition to disarming the country for the Anglo-American invasion.

Simply put, the UN is not a neutral body, and its findings are meaningless.

As for germ warfare, this IS true, I'll get back to you with sources when I have a little more time.

Re: Biological warfare against Cuba

There is also ample direct evidence of biological warfare by the United States against Cuba.

In 1984 Eduardo Arocena, a counter-revolutionary of Cuban origin and head of the Omega-7 terrorist organisation, stood trial in the US accused of the murder of Felix Garcia Rodriguez, a Cuban diplomat to the UN. Arocena confessed to having introduced 'germs' into Cuba as part of the US biological war against Cuba. He affirms that the dengue outbreak was introduced by terrorist groups into the island.

1995 February 10. A camera case in the luggage of a visiting US scientist is found to contain four small test tubes of a biological substance. On examination it is discovered to be the citric tristeza virus.

Here is additional information provided by the CIA on their operations:

Information from CIABASE files on bio/chem war on Cuba

Ralph McGehee, CIABASE

Information from CIABASE files on bio/chem war on Cuba



chemical war. covert action information bulletin (now covert
action quarterly) 17:2-31; 18:58,59; 21:29,30; 22:16, 35;
25::3,7,26. "germ warfare disinformation," 16:60,58; "the history
of U.S. bio-chemical killers," 17:5-7; "U.S. biological warfare:
the 1981 Cuba dengue epidemic" 17:28-31. in afghanistan 17:13,
17,28; in Cuba 17:28-31; in korea 17:6-7; in laos 17:12

Cuba. Details CIA efforts to avoid destroying offensive
biologicals ordered by pres. nixon. also cites article in the
1/9/77 issue of the Washington Post " CIA linked to 71 swine
virus in Cuba." BCAS v12, #4 1980 p11-17

Cuba, 69-70 a U.S. officer passed a vial of african swine
fever virus to a terrorist group. six weeks later Cuba suffered
the first outbreak of swine fever in the western hemisphere; pig
herds were decimated. richelson, j.t. (1985). the U.S.
intelligence community 231

Cuba, 71 anti-Castro group releases anti-swine virus in
Cuba and Cuban gvt forced to kill 500,000 pigs. CIA agents
delivered sealed container that contained virus to Cuban group in
ft. gurlick, panama canal zone. CIA paramilitary center helped
train members in pm ops. minnick, w. (1992). spies and
provacateurs 262

Cuba, 72-82 Cuban officials charge that the CIA infected
Cuban pigs with african swine fever in the early 70s and again in
the early 80s. also the us introduced mosquitos that carried
bleeding dengue into Cuba in 81. hundreds of thousands became ill
and 150 died. the nation 8/27/83 135

Cuba, 78-87 CIA contacted dr. eduardo sagaro gonzalez
while he taking a medical course in mexico in 78. sagaro traveled
to mozambique in 79 where he recruited and close to douglas james
smith, the cos in maputo. CIA wanted info on fidel's health and
info on pesticide reserves to combat the dengue epidemic. CIA
also had asked another agent many questions relating to bio and
chemical war. CIA convinced manufacturer of containers for
fumigating (dengue fever) mosquitoes to make them without a head
of fumigator - rendering them useless. ridenour, r. (1991). back
fire: the CIA's biggest burn 77

Cuba, 79-82 when CIA agent davidson left Cuba he
instructed officers bruce timpton and richard brennan to keep in
touch with agronomist lopez nunez. they asked for samples of
tobacco leaves. ridenour, r. (1991). back fire: the CIA's biggest
burn 78

Cuba, 79 orlando argudin lopez, aka oscar aka rolando was
told by his CIA handler in paris in 79 that CIA was introducing
diseases to affect people and animals. ridenour, r. (1991). back
fire: the CIA's biggest burn 74

Cuba, 81 300,000 people had dengue fever. two years
earlier swine fever devastated the island nation. entire tobacco
crop attacked by mildew; sugar cane had fungus. Cuban double
agents received reporting requirements from CIA re those events.
top secret 0-88 9-11

Cuba, 81 dengue fever type 2 broke out in Cuba 2 months
after CIA query re topic to Cuban double agent maria
santiesteban. she worked with dse for 11 years and recruited her
husband, jose alberto puig aka abelardo. ridenour, r. (1991).
back fire: the CIA's biggest burn 71

Cuba, 93 Cuba said an epidemic affecting eyesight - optic
neuritis - may have been deliberately introduced from abroad.
washington times 5/1/93 a2

Cuba, 95-97 Cuba showed a u.n. meeting against biological
weapons, pictures of a U.S. op to plague Cuba with a crop-eating
pest and called for an international investigation. it is the
first time the biological weapons convention is dealing with a
complaint under a 1991 provision that lets a nation that believes
it has come under biological attack seek an investigation. a u.n.
meeting on Cuba's charges ended inconclusively in geneva. in
talks held under a cold war-era treaty which bans biological
weapons but lacks a verification mechanism, havana failed to get
the investigation it wanted and washington was unable to close
the matter. johnpike 9/2/97

Cuba, 96-97 Cuba said the us government unleashed biowar
against Cuba. granma newspaper provided a map of us state
department aircraft's trajectory over Cuba last october 21st, the
date of the first appearance of the thrips palmi insect plague in
western and central Cuba, and the dates of Cuba's official note
of protest to the us interests section in havana as well as the
response to that protest. on 2/12/97 -- the us interests section
said the sr2 aircraft, turned on its smoke generator to warn a
nearby Cuban commercial airliner of its presence in the region.
the sr2 used by the state department for the fumigation of drug
crops is known to have two dispersion systems: one for aerosols
and liquid particles, and one for solid particles, but is not
known to carry a smoke generator. the Cuban pilot who spotted the
aircraft, and who has experience in fumigation said that the us
aircraft did not launch smoke, but rather a substance. rhc 5/7/97

Cuba, 96 note 4/28/97 from Cuba to u.n. secretary-general
re the thrips palmi plague. on 10/21/96, at 10.08 hours, crew
members of (Cuban airlines), saw a single-engine airplane
apparently spraying or sprinkling unknown substances - some seven
times. located 25 to 30 kilo metres south of varadero. the flight
was a fumigation aircraft model sar, register n3093m, operated by
the state department. the airplane had taken off from patrick air
force base, bound for grand cayman. the Cubana pilot reported to
flight control the release of unknown substances, in the form of
a white or greyish mist, by the sar airplane. 12/18/96, the first
signs of thrips plague appeared in matanzas province. after a
protest note on 2/12/97, the us interest section in havana,
stated, the pilot had, during his flight, seen a Cuban commercial
airplane flying below, and as he was not certain of having seen,
"following caution and safety procedures," and with the purpose
of securing a positive visual contact, the pilot used the "smoke
generator" of his aircraft, in order to "indicate its location"
adding that "the smoke vanished and no fluid was poured from the
airplane." the sar aircraft, register n3093m, is used by the
state department in the struggle against drug trafficking, to
destroy crops. the aircraft utilizes two sprinkling systems: one
for the use of aerosols and liquid particles and another for
dropping solid particles. the investigations show, the appearance
of thrips palmi in mananas province with the dropping, on
10/21/96, of an unknown substance. protest note 6/29/93

Cuba, switzerland, 96-97 - Cuba charged the U.S. sprayed
it with a hungry insect that is devouring its crops. at a meeting
here of the 138 nations that signed the 1972 convention on
biological weapons, Cuba demanded an investigation into claim
that a U.S. state dept plane spewed an agent known as thrips
palmi over Cuba last october. charges provide a test for the
accord, intended to ban germ warfare. accord now includes no
provisions for verification or enforcement. now negotiators
trying to add powers that were built into the post-cold war
treaties to ban chemical weapons and nuclear test explosions. the
tiny insect, which severely damages practically every crop,
started showing up in potato plantations about two months after
the october flyover. washington post 8/26/97 a12

Cuba, switzerland, 97 Cuban accuses U.S. government
crop-dusting plane for spraying a substance over Cuba in october
96 that led to the appearance in december of a crop pest. the
potato bug was dropped on 10/21/96 by an s2r crop-dusting plane
operated by the state department -- who says the plane overflew
Cuba, but emitted only smoke. washington times 8/26/97 a10

Cuba, 61 CIA used weather modification and swine fever
virus against Cuba. richelson, j.t. (1985). the U.S. intelligence
community 231

Cuba, 79-81 Castro said CIA probably behind hemorrhagic
dengue where in 7 weeks 113 people died and 300,000 infected. he
raised questions about african swine fever, sugar cane rust and
blue mold on tobacco that hit Cuba beginning 79 counterspy 2/82

Cuba, 81 various evidence including testimony suggests
that CIA thru Cuban exile terrorist org omega 7 spread epidemic
of dengue fever. covert action information bulletin (now covert
action quarterly) fall 84 22 & summer 82 28-31

Cuba, 61-81 Cuban sugar contaminated, infected turkeys
virus, 8000 died. 71 created african swine fever, 500,000 pigs
killed. 81 epidemic dengue fever 300,000 cases reported. blum, w.
(1986). the CIA a forgotten history 211

Cuba, plans against Cuba's sugar crop. ranelagh, j. (1986).
the agency 386

Cuba, 71 U.S. intel source said the CIA gave an
anti-Castro group a container filled with african swine fever
virus which caused the slaughter of 500,000 pigs to prevent a
nationwide epidemic. wp 1/9/77, first principles 2/77 p12


94-95 in 94 at maximum biosafety level 4 at the U.S. army
medical research institute of infectious diseases, the fort
detrick "biological weapons" center, a controlled experiment was
run with what is probably the world's most deadly organism: elgon
filoviruses. these fragile tapes of rna in thin, protein-walled
molecular tubes a few microns long share seven common proteins,
and the army experiment showed that the most fulminating,
hemorrhagic subtype, ebola zaire could pass airborne from one
monkey to another. in biological warfare lingo, ebola zaire
filovirus is a true "slate-wiper:" in a modern hospital, it will
kill nine out of 10 infected persons in 24 to 48 hours. there are
no known antibodies or counter-measures and its molecular
structure is indistinguishable from other filoviruses, the least
"fulminating" of which kills one in four persons in 24 to 48
hours. after a few days or weeks of incubation in a mammal host,
a filovirus multiples inordinately, congealing blood platelets
and softening organ tissue into jelly. first, capillaries, then
larger blood vessels fill, swell and burst, leaving the host
bleeding massively internally and also externally through all
orifices. intelligence - a computerized intelligence newsletter
published in france 2/27/95 2 biological war. covert action
information bulletin (now covert action quarterly) 17:2-31;
18:58,59; 21:29,30; 22:16, 35; 25::3,7,26. "germ warfare
disinformation," 16:60,58; "the history of U.S. bio-chemical
killers," 17:5-7; "U.S. biological warfare: the 1981 Cuba dengue
epidemic" 17:28-31. in afghanistan 17:13, 17,28; in Cuba
17:28-31; in korea 17:6-7; in laos 17:12

Cuba, 61-62 op mongoose begun in 11/61 to overthrow
Castro. a wide range of ops from intel and propaganda, to
sabotage of factories and installations, bombing power lines,
spreading chemicals on sugar fields to sicken cane cutters, and
several plots to murder Castro. watson, b., watson, s. & hopple,
g. (1990). united states intelligence: an encyclopedia 364

Cuba, 61-81 Cuban sugar contaminated, infected Cubans
turkeys virus, 8000 died. 71 created african swine fever, 500,000
pigs killed. 81 epidemic dengue fever 300,000 cases reported.
blum, w. (1986). the CIA a forgotten history 211

Cuba, 66-87 in july 87 Cuban gvt revealed the identities
of 26 Cubans and one italian who had served as double agents for
the Cuban gvt while ostensibly working for the CIA (double
agents). Cuban tv ran an 11-part series on the 26. series exposed
CIA attempts to spread dengue fever and crop diseases and efforts
to assassinate Castro. nacla (magazine re latin america) 9/89 6

Cuba, 69-70 CIA used weather modification to ravage
Cuba's sugar crop. it seeded rain clouds in non-agricultural
areas that left cane fields arid. blum, w. (1986). the CIA a
forgotten history 211

Cuba, 69-70 CIA apparently used weather modification to
destabilize Cuba's food crop and export income. planes from china
lake naval weapons center in california overflew Cuba seeding
rain clouds that precipitated torrential rains over
nonagricultural areas and left cane fields dry. CIA used
international research and technology corporation in this op as
reported by one of institutions leaders, lowell ponte in nyt,
6/27/76. dutch scientists jaap van ginneken supported ponte's
claim. ridenour, r. (1991). back fire: the CIA's biggest burn 73

Cuba, 69-70 planes from the china lake naval weapons
center in california overflew Cuba, seeding rain clouds with
crystals that precipitated torrential rains over nonagricultural
areas and left the cane fields arid. richelson, j.t. (1985). the
U.S. intelligence community 231

Cuba, 71-83 sudden outbreaks of sogata rice blight in 71,
african swine fever in 71 and 79, sugar cane rust and smut in
78-79, blue tobacco mold in 79, newcastle disease in 82, and
coffee smut in 83 caused serious damage to Cuban economy.
ridenour, r. (1991). back fire: the CIA's biggest burn 73

Cuba, 80-84 eduardo victor arrocena perez, head of
CIA-financed group, omega-7, tried for assassinating felix
garcia, a Cuban diplomat in new york on 9/11/80. arrocena was a
CIA agent. during trial he testified CIA had given him chemicals
to produce sickness in Cuba. ridenour, r. (1991). back fire: the
CIA's biggest burn 78-9

Cuba, vietnam, 57-97 book, che guevara: a revolutionary
life, by jon lee anderson, reviewd by jane franklin. discusses
lansdale in 1991 who had just returned from vietnam, where
operation hades, a massive chemical warfare program, had just
been secretly launched. the nation 5/19/97 27-8

Re: Cuban Billboard Equates US Torture With Nazis

Excellent billboard, I love it. The US officials should have realized their hypocrisy given their own country’s atrocious record of imprisoning people without charges. Fortunately, the Cuban’s were able to help the Americans locate the sense of shame that they are so frequently unable to find. I mean how much more tasteless could the Americans get than setting up that Christmas display on the same island that they are operating a concentration camp on (Guantanamo Bay).


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